Caries – is one of the most common dental diseases. It appears as a result of the loss of tooth enamel of minerals, and the appearance of defects in it. Dental caries is an irreversible process that causes demineralization of dental hard tissues (enamel, dentine and cementum) and destruction of the organic matter of the tooth.
Play a crucial role in the early stages of tooth decay is reversible, so a timely appeal to the dentist and proper oral hygiene in the prevention of caries and the treatment successful.
Tooth decay – Stages of tooth decay
The main characteristic of caries, is the gradual softening of hard tooth tissue, begin to form small spots, and in advanced cases is the formation of cavities.
Since the formation rate to progressive processes caries has the following steps:
- Spot Stage – reduced to a chalky formations and age spots on tooth enamel color changes with increasing sensitivity. There dimineralizatsiya. The process is painful, so the patient or attached particular importance to the appearance of this spot. This stage requires the remineralization of tooth, that is, restoring the density of the enamel;
- Surface stage – a violation of the tooth enamel and stains zone appears cone-shaped defect, which faces the dentin. Damaged tooth enamel, it is sensitive to temperature and chemical influences, subsequently causing short-term pain. At this stage, the tooth requires treatment due to installation of a seal;
- Caries middle stage – the defeat of the upper layer of dentine and the formation of cavities. With the sounding of the survey made for the sensitivity of the bottom of the cavity and tooth tissue defect is determined;
- Stage deep caries – tooth decay process of tissue damage deeper layers of dentin, softened to a pulp. When getting into a cavity of a foreign body or food, there is an acute pain. Treatment is carried out with the use of photopolymer material for sealing and healing tabs.
Caries – Causes of caries
The main cause of tooth decay is loss of minerals from tooth enamel due to the action of acids produced by plaque. In the occurrence of carious processes involving various etiological factors leading to the conclusion of caries as a disease polietiologichesky.
Under the basis of etiological factors may be considered:
- microflora of the mouth;
- the quality and quantity of saliva;
- the state of the body in general;
- regime and the nature of power;
- the amount of fluoride in drinking water;
- extreme effects on the body.
These factors are called cariogenic and is divided into local and general, continue to play an important and serious defined role in the symptoms of tooth decay.
- plaque and plaque on the teeth, where an abundance of microorganisms;
- a violation of the properties and composition of the liquid in the mouth, which are a kind of indicator of the internal state of the body;
- starchy sticky residues mouth;
- resistance of tooth tissue, which is caused by the chemical composition and structure of the high-grade hard dental tissue;
- the state of the dental pulp;
- condition in dental system as a whole, in the period of teething, development and Bookmark teeth.
- drinking water and diet is defective;
- somatic diseases. Shifting the functional state of organs and systems in the gestation period and the formation of dental tissues;
- effects on the body during extreme;
- heredity, which is caused by the chemical composition and structure of the usefulness of the tooth tissue. Formation adverse genetic code.
Prevention and treatment of dental caries
Upon detection of caries is desirable as soon as possible address to the dentist, otherwise further destruction of the tooth will lead to pulpitis, periodontitis, or tooth brush, then you have “force” to turn to the dentist unbearable toothache. The cost of dental treatment will be higher, because the need to handle and seal the channels. Needless also remembered that launched carious process may become the source of many health problems.
Treatment of dental caries is the formation of the cavity and setting the seal. Take into account the location, distinction and fissure caries smooth surface.
Fissure caries is the most common and frequent form of the disease. It is localized in the fissure deeply enough, usually affecting the chewing surface of a tooth side.
Localization smooth surface caries develops in an area where it is difficult to remove plaque. . For example, at the bottom of the contact point level of the gingival margin and along the root surface location of the lesion is divided into six classes, of which five classes is characterized by a smooth surface caries, and one class – fissure.
Anticaries offers various treatments, such as topical fluoridation and fissure sealing, as well as regular medical supervision for the treatment of caries patients.
Local fluoridation – the procedure involves treatment of the affected tooth ftorlakom, which includes sodium fluoride. In some cases also individual cap that puts the patient at bedtime, after filling it with fluoride gel. The course of treatment lasts 1-2 weeks fluorine. The result of this therapy – reduction in the number of spots and improving the overall condition of the enamel.
In the post procedural period it is recommended to reduce the consumption of a variety of simple carbohydrates and brush your teeth specially designated physician paste.
Sealing fissures involves filling them with a special pre-treatment ftorgermetikom chewing surface of the tooth. Sealant fulfills two functions. On the one hand, the fluorine ions contained therein seeps into the damaged enamel and its strength is reduced. On the other hand, the sealant fills the space fissure recess, thereby preventing the ingress of food and consequently – and the development of caries.
Regular medical control – are periodic visits to the dentist for the timely detection and surgical treatment of dental caries, and in particular. In addition, your doctor can give you valuable advice on the care of teeth and prevention of dental caries.